The Glutathione Man

Dr Herbert T Nagasawa and Robert E Chan
The Glutathione Man

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Dr Herbert T Nagasawa explains about The Science of Riboceine™
Scientists and medical doctors have known for decades that glutathione, which is produced by the body itself, is the primary protector and detoxifier of the cell. However, under oxidative stress conditions, the glutathione levels become depleted. Also, from near the age of forty, the body’s ability to produce glutathione decreases gradually, then more rapidly at older age. For years, medical scientists have looked for ways to effectively raise the levels of glutathione. At one time, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was the only supplement available to enhance the body’s supply of cysteine to enable the production of glutathione. However, Dr. Herbert T. Nagasawa was able to develop a revolutionary molecule known as RiboCeine
 that effectively delivers cysteine to the cell to support the natural production of glutathione--for which Max International was awarded a U.S. Patent.
Scientifically Proven and Patented Technology
RiboCeine™ is a unique molecule that combines ribose and cysteine, nutrients that occur naturally in our bodies. RiboCeine™ once ingested will be absorbed, enters the bloodstream and delivers cysteine and ribose to the cells, supporting glutathione production as well as providing ribose, an integral part of ATP, our cells’ natural fuel and source of energy. RiboCeine™ significantly outperformed other means of glutathione enhancement against which it has been tested. It has been the subject of 55 scientific studies funded by the National Institutes of Health or other scientific funding agencies and published in peer-reviewed journals.

Explore the wealth of knowledge with 55 studies on RiboCeine™
Riboceine™'s distinctive Mechanism of Action (MOA) and the profound impact on endogenous Glutathione production. Check out the peer-reviewed and published studies through these direct links to reputable 3rd party research sites. Uncover the scientific validation behind RiboCeine™, demonstrating its potential to enhance Glutathione levels. Elevate your understanding with evidence-backed insights.
  1. Roberts, J.C.; Nagasawa, H.T.; Zera, R.T.; Fricke, R.F.; Goon, D.J. W. Prodrugs of L-cysteine as protective agents against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. 2-(polyhydroxyalky)-and 2-(Polyacetoxyalky)-Thiazolidine-4(R)-Carboxylic Acids. J. Med Chem. 1987, 30, 1891-1896.
  2. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J.; Zera, R.T. L-cysteine prodrug protects against cyclophosphamide urotoxicity without compromising therapeutic activity. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 1991, 28, 166-170.
  3. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J. Time course for the elevation of glutathione in numerous organs of L1210-bearing CDF1 mice given the L-cysteine prodrug, RibCys. Toxicology Letters, 1991, 59, 245-251.
  4. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J. Mechanisms of Chemoprotection by RibCys, a Thiazolidine Prodrug of L cysteine. Med. Chem. Res., 1991, 1, 213-219.
  5. Roberts, J.C.; Charyulu, R. L.; Zera, R.T.; Nagasawa, H.T. Protection Against Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Ribose-Cysteine (RibCys). Pharmacology & Toxicology, 1992, 70, 281-285.
  6. Rowe, J.K.; Zera, R.T.; Madoff, R.D.; Fink, A.S.; Roberts, J.C.; Johnston, G.R.; Freeney, D.A.;Young, H.L.; Bubrick, M.P. Protective Effect of RibCys Following High-Dose Irradiation of the Rectosigmoid. Dis. Colon Rectum, 1993, 36(7), 681-687.
  7. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J.; Zera, R.T. Chemoprotection against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urotoxicity: Comparison of Nine Thiol Protective Agents. AntiCancer Research, 1994, 14, 389-396.
  8. Carroll, M.P.; Zera, R.T.; Roberts, J.C.; Schlafmann, S.E.; Feeny, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; West, M.A.; Bubrick, M.P. Efficacy of Radioprotective Agents in Preventing Small and Large Bowel Radiation Injury. Dis. Colon Rectum, 1995, 38(7), 716-722.
  9. Roberts, J.C.; Koch, K.E.; Detrick, S.R.; Warters, R.L.; Lubec G. Thiazolidine Prodrugs of Cysteamine and Cysteine as Radioprotective Agents. Radiation Research, 1995, 143, 203-213.
  10. Bantseev, V.; Bhardwaj, R.; Rathbun, W.; Nagasawa, H.T.; Trevithick, J.R. Antioxidants and Cataract: (Cataract Induction in Space Environment and Application to Terrestrial Aging Cataract). Biochem. Mol. Bio. Intl., 1997, 42, 1189-1197.
  11. Roberts, J.C.; Phaneuf, H.L.; Szakacs, J.G.; Zera, R.T.; Lamb, J.G.; Franklin, M.R. Differential Chemoprotection against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Latentiated L-Cysteines. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 1998, 11, 1274-1282.
  12. Roberts, J.C.; Phaneuf, H.L.; Dominick, P.K.; Wilmore, B.H.; Cassidy, P.B. Biodistribution of [35S] – Cysteine and Cysteine Prodrugs: Potential Impact on Chemoprotection Strategies. J. Labelled Cpd. Radiopharm., 1999, 42, 485-495.
  13. Lucus, A.M.; Henning G.; Dominick, P.K.; Whiteley, H.E.; Roberts, J.C.; Cohen, S.D. Ribose Cysteine Protects Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic and Renal Toxicity. Toxicologic Pathology, 2000, 28(5), 697-704.
  14. Wilmore, B.H.; Cassidy, P.B.; Warters, R.L.; Roberts, J.C. Thiazolidine Prodrugs as Protective Agents against γ-Radiation-Induced Toxicity and Mutagenesis in V79 Cells. J. Med. Chem., 2001, 44(16), 2661-2666.
  15. Lenarczyk, M.; Ueno, A.; Vannais, D.B.; Kraemer, S.; Kronenberg, A.; Roberts, J.C.; Tatsumi, K.; Hei, T.K.; Waldren, C.A. The “Pro-drug” RibCys Decreases the Mutagenicity of High-LET Radiation in Cultured Mammalian Cells. Radiation Research, 2003, 160, 579-583.
  16. Waldren, C.A.; Vannais, D.B.; Ueno A.M. A role for long-lived radicals (LLR) in radiation-induced mutation and persistent chromosomal instability: counteraction by Ascorbate and RibCys but not DMSO. Mutation Research. 2004, 551:255-265.
  17. Lucas Slitt, A.M.; Dominick, P.K.; Roberts, J.C.; Cohen, S.D. Effect of Ribose Cysteine Pretreatment on Hepatic and Renal Acetaminophen Metabolite Formation and Glutathione Depletion. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2005, 96 (6), 487-94.
  18. Oz, H.S.; Chen, T.S.; Nagasawa, H., Comparative efficacies of 2 cysteine prodrugs and a glutathione delivery agent in a colitis model. Translational Research, 2007, 150(2), 122-129.
  19. Oz, H.S. and Ebersole, J.L. Application of Prodrugs to Inflammatory Diseases of the Gut. Molecules, 2008, 13, 452-474
  20. Walker R.B., Everette J.D. Comparative Reaction Rates of Various Antioxidants with ABTS Radical Cation. J. Agric Food Chem. 2009:57:1156-1161.
  21. Heman-Ackah, S.E.; Juhn, S.K.; Huang, T.C.; Wiedmann, T.S. A combination antioxidant therapy prevents age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 2010, 143, 429-434.
  22. Jurkowska, H.; Uchacz, T.; Roberts, J.; Wrobel, M. Potential therapeutic advantage of ribose-cysteine in the inhibition of astrocytoma cell proliferation. Amino Acids, 2011 41, 131-139.
  23. Kader, T.; Porteous C.M.; Williams M.J.A.; Gieseg, S.P.; McCormick, S.P.A. Ribose-cysteine increases glutathione-based antioxidant status and reduces LDL in human lipoprotein(a) mice. Atherosclerosis. 2014, 237, 725-733.
  24. Saltman A.E. D-Ribose-L-cysteine supplementation enhances wound healing in a rodent model. Am J Surg. 2015, 210, 153-158.
  25. Falana B, Adeleke O, Orenolu M, Osinubi A, Oyewopo A. Effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine on aluminum induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. JBRA Assisted Reproduction. 2017:21(2):94-100.
  26. Joseph D.B., Olayemi O.S., Falana B.A., Duru F.I.O. Osinubi A.A.A. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine Maintained Testicular Integrity in Rats Model (Rattus Novergicus) Exposed to X-Ray. Nuclear Medicine. 2017(2)4:20-26.
  27. Ogunlade B., Osinubi A.A., Duru F.I.O., Adelakun S.A., Ogunlade S.A., Alao A.A, Histomorphological Response of Sulforaphane and RiboCeine on Annular Puncture-Induced Model of Rabbits Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. European Journal of biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017(4)11:1-9.
  28. N’guessan B.B., Amponsah S.K., Dugbartey G.J., Awuah K.D., Dotse E., Aning A., Kukuia K.K.E., Asiedu-Gyekye I.J., Appiah-Opong R. In Vitro Antioxidant Potential and Effect of a Glutathione-Enhancer Dietary Supplement on Selected Rat Liver Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activity. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018:7462839:8 pages.
  29. Awodele O, Badru W.A., Busari A.A., Kale O.E., Ajayi T.B., Udeh R.O. Emeka P.M. Toxicological evaluation of therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses of Cellgevity on reproductive function and biochemical indices in Wistar rats. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2018:19:68.
  30. Cukrov D., Newman T.A.C., Leask M., Leeke B., Sarogni P., Patimo A., Kline A.D., Krantz I.D., Horsfield J.A., Musio A. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates phenotypic features of SMC1A-mutated Cornelia de Lange syndrome in vitro and in vivo. Human Molecular Genetics. 2018:27:17:3002-3011.
  31. Osinubi A.A.A, Medubi L.J., Akang E.N., Sodiq L.K., Samuel, T.A., Kusemiju T., Osolu J., Madu D., Fasanmade O. A comparison of the anti-diabetic potential of D-ribose-L-cysteine with insulin, and oral hypoglycaemic agents on pregnant rats. Toxicology Reports. 2018(5):832-838.
  32. Medubi L.J., Ama C., Medubi O.O., Onwosu N.C., Lawal O.R., Osinubi A.A.A. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine-Rich Supplement Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Impaired Spermatogenesis, Testicular Steroidogenesis and Redox Status in Sprague-Dawley Rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2019(22):179-185.
  33. Emokpae O, Ben-Azu B, Ajayi AM, Umukoro S. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficits through inhibition of oxidative stress, release of proinflammatory cytokines, and nuclear factor-kappa B expression in mice. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology. 07 January 2020.
  34. Kader T., Porteous M., Jones G., Dickerhof N., Narayana V.K., Taraknath S., McCormick S.P.A. Ribose-Cysteine protects against the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. PLoS ONE 15(2): e0228415. 02 21 2020.
  35. Emokpae O, Ben-Azu B, Ajayi AM, Umukoro S. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine enhances memory task, attenuates oxidative stress and acetyl-cholinesterase activity in scopolamine amnesic mice. Drug Dev Res. 2020;1-9
  36. Amponsah S.K., N’guessan B.B, Akandawen, A.A., Agboli S.Y., Danso, E.A., Opuni K.F.M., Asiedu Gyekye I.J., Appiah-Opong, R. Effect of Cellgevity Supplementation on Selected Rat Liver Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activity and Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Carbamazepine. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2020 (July 3), Article ID: 7956493, 8 pages.
  37. Okoh, L., Ajayi, A.M., Ben-Azu, B., Akinluyi, E.T., Emokpae, O., Umukoro, S. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine exhibits adaptogenic-like activity through inhibition of oxido-inflammatory responses and increased neuronal caspase-3 activity in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress. Molecular Biology Reports. 2020 47:7709-7722.
  38. Ogunlade, B., Gbotolorun S.C., Ogunlade, A.A. D-Ribose-L-Cysteine modulates lead acetate-induced hematobiochemical alterations, hormonal imbalance, and ovarian toxicity in adult female Wistar rats. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. November 7, 2020; 1-8.
  39. Ogunlade, B., Fidelis, O.P., Afolayan, O.O., Agie, J.A. Neurotherapeutic and antioxidant response of D Ribose-L-Cysteine nutritional dietary supplements on Alzheimer-type hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by cuprizone in adult male wistar rate model. Food and Chemical Toxicology. November 11, 2020; 1-9.
  40. Oludare, G.O., Afolayan, G.O., Semidara, G.G. Potential anti-toxic effect of d-ribose-l-cysteine supplement on the reproductive functions of male rats administered cyclophosphamide. J. Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Feb 8.
  41. Ojetola, A.A., Adedeji, T.G., Fasanmade, A.A. Changes in antioxidants status, atherogenic index and cardiovascular variables after prolonged doses of D-ribose-L-cysteine in male Wistar rats. Heliyon 7 (2021) e06287.
  42. Medubi, L.J., Nwosu, N.C., Medubi, O.O., Lawal, O.R., Ama, C., Kusemiju, T.O., Osinubi, A.A.A. Increased de novo glutathione production enhances sexual dysfunctions in rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation. JBRA Assisted reproduction. September 30, 2020; 1-8.
  43. Verrilli, A.M, Leibman, N.F., Hohenhaus, A.E., Mosher, B.A. Safety and efficacy of a ribose-cysteine supplement to increase erythrocyte glutathione concentration in healthy dogs. AJVR. 2021; 82(8). 653- 658.
  44. Ogunlade, B., Adelakun, S.A., Ukwenya, V.O., Elemoso, T.T. Potentiating response of D-Ribose-L Cysteine on Sodium arsenate-induced hormonal imbalance, spermatogenesis impairments and histomorphometric alterations in adult male Wistar rat. JBRA Assisted Reproduction. 2021; 25(3): 358- 367.
  45. Ojetola, A.A, Adeyemi, W.J., David, U.E., Ajibade, T.O., Adejumobi O.A., Omobowale, T.O., Oyagbemi, A.A., Fasanmade, A.A. D-ribose-L-cysteine prevents oxidative stress and cardiometabolic syndrome in high fructose high fat diet fed rats. J.Biopha. 2021 (142) 112017.
  46. Akingbade G.T., Ijomone O.M., Imam A., Aschner M., Ajao M.S. D-Ribose-l-Cysteine Improves Glutathione Levels, Neuronal and Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Damage, Caspase-3 and GFAP Expressions Following Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity. 2021 Sep 4. doi: 10.1007/s12640-021- 00404-3. pp 1-13.
  47. Adelakun, S.A., Ogunlade, B., Iteire K.A., Adedotun, O.A. Ameliorating potential and fertility enhancing activities of nutritional dietary supplementation of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine in cisplatin induced oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and seminiferous epithelium degeneration in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Metabolism Open. 12 (2021) 100128.
  48. Leask, M., Carleton, C., Leeke, B., Newman, T., Antoun, J., Farella, M., Horshield, J. RiboCeine Rescues Auranofin-Induced Craniofacial Defects in Zebrafish. Antioxidants. 2021, 10, 1964.
  49. Akingbade G.T., Ijomone O.M., Imam A., Aschner M., Ajao A.S., D-Ribose-L-Cysteine attenuates manganese-induced cognitive and motor deficit, oxidative damage, and reactive microglia activation. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2022.
  50. Ojetola, A.A. and Fasanmade, A.A. Ameliorative potential of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine in male Wistar rats with metabolic syndrome. FASEBJ. 2022, 35, May 2022.
  51. Isabor, H., Ajayi, A.M., Ben-Azu, B., Omeiza, N.A., Ademola, A.P., Umukoro, S. D-ribose-L-cysteine reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines to mitigate liver damage, and memory decline induced by copper sulfate in mice. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 73 (2022) 127001.
  52. Ogunlade, B., Gbotolorun, S.C., Ogunlade, A.A. D-ribose-L-cysteine modulates lead acetate-induced hematobiochemical alternations, hormonal imbalance, and ovarian toxicity in adult female Wistar rats. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2022 45(4), 1606-1613.
  53. Adekomi,D.A, Olajide, O.J., Adewale, O.O., Okesina, A.A., Fatoki, J.O., Falana, B.A. Adeniyi, T.D., Adegoke A.A., Ojo, W.A., Alabi, S.O. D-ribose-L-Cysteine exhibits neuroprotective activity through inhibition of oxido-behavioral dysfunctions and modulated activities of neurotransmitters in the cerebellum of Juvenile mice exposed to ethanol. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 2022 June 20:1-11.
  54. Mega, O.O., Edesiri, T.P., Victor, E., Kingsley, N.E., Rume, R.A., Faith, F.Y., Simon, O.I., Oghenetega, B.O., Agbonito-Chijiokwu, E. d-ribose- l-cysteine abrogates testicular maladaptive responses induced by polychlorinated bisphenol intoxication in rats via activation of the mTOR signaling pathway mediating inhibition of apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidonitrergic flux. J. Biochem Mol. Toxicol. 2022 July 13, e23161.
  55. Ojetola, A.A., Asiwe, J.N., Adeyemi, W.J., Ogundipe, D.J., Fasanmade, A.A. Dietary Supplementation with D-Ribose-L-Cysteine Prevents Hepatic Stress and Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Male Wistar Rats Fed a High-Fructose High-Fat Diet. Pathophysiology 2022, 29, 631-639.

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