|The Enchanting Journey begins
Unveiling the Fascinating History and Multifaceted Wonders of
In the intricate tapestry of human health, a silent protagonist
diligently operates in the background, diligently guarding our
cells and nurturing our overall well-being. This unassuming yet
extraordinary molecule serves as a master key to an astonishing
array of biological functions that profoundly shape our
Robert E Chan
|Allow me to guide you through a captivating exploration of "The
Glutathione Story," a voyage that traverses time and scientific
discovery, revealing the extraordinary journey of this unsung hero
within our bodies.
Through the many chapters of "The Glutathione Story," we will
navigate its influence on immunity, cellular revitalization, and its
potential to bridge the gap between health and longevity. This
is more than a mere narrative - it is a narrative of empowerment, a
remarkable saga of cellular resilience and strength, and an
exploration of the remarkable potential within our own bodies. Stay
tuned for the unfolding chapters that promise to shed light on the
awe-inspiring Glutathione Story.
|The Glutathione Story – 1
The Discovery of Glutathione
Joseph de REY-PAILHADE (1850-1934?)
de Rey-Paihade was born in Paris, France, in 1850. He studied chemistry at the École Polytechnique and the École de Pharmacie in Paris. After
graduating, he worked as a chemist at the Pasteur Institute.
In 1888, de Rey-Paihade was studying the metabolism of yeast when he
isolated a compound that he called "philothion." Philothion is the
Greek word for "love of sulfur," and Rey-Paihade named the compound
after its sulfur-containing amino acids.
Joseph de REY-PAILHADE
|de Rey-Paihade's discovery of
Glutathione was a significant breakthrough in the field of
biochemistry. Glutathione is now known to be a major antioxidant in
the body, and it plays a vital role in many important biological
processes, including cell signalling, DNA repair, and immune
Rey-Paihade continued to study Glutathione throughout his career. He
published several papers on the compound, and he also developed
methods for its purification and analysis.
Rey-Paihade died in Paris in 1934. His work on Glutathione laid the
foundation for much of the research that has been done on this
important molecule in the years since.
In addition to his work on Glutathione, de Rey-Paihade also made
significant contributions to the fields of organic chemistry and
pharmacology. He was a gifted chemist and a dedicated researcher,
and his work has had a lasting impact on the field of biochemistry.
|The Glutathione Story – 2
Glutathione's tripeptide chemical structure rediscovered
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861 – 1947)
In a remarkable turn of events in 1921, 33 years
after its initial discovery, Glutathione once again found itself
in the spotlight, thanks to the pioneering efforts of Sir
Frederick Gowland Hopkins, an eminent English biochemist, and
the revered "Father of Biochemistry" from Cambridge University.
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins made a profound breakthrough by
"rediscovering" the substance's intricate structures and
unravelling its metabolic pathways.
Driven by an insatiable curiosity about the complexities of
biochemical processes within the human body, Sir Frederick
Gowland Hopkins embarked on a journey of scientific inquiry that
led him to the profound realization of the significance of
Glutathione. His seminal research not only shed light on the
tripeptide's chemical structures but also illuminated its
critical roles in various cellular processes.
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
|Inspired by the molecule's unique
chemical composition, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins was
determined to give it a name that would reflect its
importance and newfound understanding. In 1929, he
christened the molecule "Glutathione," derived from the
amino acids that compose its structure—glutamic acid, cysteine,
and glycine. This name change cemented the molecule's identity
and marked a turning point in our understanding of its
significance in cellular health and overall well-being.
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins was awarded
the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with
Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins. He also
discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901. He was President
of the Royal Society from 1930 to 1935
The findings of Sir Frederick Gowland
Hopkins, published in THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY,
became a cornerstone of modern biochemistry and contributed
significantly to the growing body of knowledge on Glutathione.
His rediscovery and renaming of the molecule brought it into the
limelight once again, sparking renewed interest and further
exploration into its diverse roles in human physiology.
Glutathione Story – 4
The Chemistry of Glutathione
Dr. Alton Meister (1922 – 1995)
In 1954, a groundbreaking chapter in the story of Glutathione
unfolded with the involvement of Dr. Alton Meister, a
distinguished Harvard graduate and an accomplished medical
doctor trained at Cornell Medical College in New York. Dr.
Meister, driven by a passion for scientific exploration,
assembled a team of dedicated researchers to embark on further
studies of this remarkable tripeptide.
Dr. Alton Meister
|Over the span of more than two decades,
from 1954 until the 1980s, Dr. Meister and his devoted science
team delved deep into the intricacies of Glutathione's functions
and its potential implications for human health. Their research
efforts led to groundbreaking discoveries, shedding new light on
the molecule's mechanisms and its significance in cellular
Dr. Meister's studies revealed the pivotal roles of Glutathione
in maintaining cellular redox balance, detoxification, and
supporting the body's antioxidant defence systems. Their work
provided a comprehensive understanding of Glutathione's
interactions with various enzymes and its impact on crucial
The results of Dr. Meister's research, published in numerous
scientific journals, contributed significantly to the growing
body of knowledge on Glutathione. Their work underscored the
tripeptide's status as a key player in cellular health and its
implications for a wide range of health conditions.
Glutathione Story – 5
Glutathione metabolism research
Dr. Shelly C. Lu
is a board-certified hepatologist and the Director of the Liver
Center at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles,
California. She has been studying Glutathione for over 30 years,
and her research has focused on the role of Glutathione in liver
Dr. Shelly C. Lu
|Lu's research has shown that
Glutathione plays a key role in protecting the liver from damage
caused by toxins and infections. It also helps to repair damage
that has already occurred. Glutathione levels are often low in
people with liver disease, and supplementation with Glutathione
can help to improve liver function.
Lu is a highly respected scientist who has made significant
contributions to the field of Glutathione research. Her work has
helped to shed light on the importance of Glutathione for liver
health and has also helped to develop new strategies for
preventing and treating liver disease.
Here are some of the key publications of Dr. Shelly C. Lu on
Lu, S. C., & Mato, J. M. (2006). Glutathione and liver disease.
Journal of Hepatology, 44(1), 13-25.
Lu, S. C., & Jia, L. (2010). Glutathione and its role in aging
and age-related diseases. Ageing Research Reviews, 9(1), 1-11.
Lu, S. C., & Bosco, D. (2016). Glutathione and neurodegenerative
diseases. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7, 119.
Lu stands as a pioneering figure in the realms of S-adenosylmethionine
and Glutathione metabolism research, with an illustrious
30-year-long career dedicated to unravelling the complexities of
these critical pathways. Her unwavering dedication and
groundbreaking contributions have earned her continuous funding
from the prestigious National Institutes of Health (NIH) since
1992, affirming her position at the forefront of scientific
At the core of Dr. Lu's research lies an unwavering commitment
to elucidating the molecular intricacies governing fatty liver,
liver injury, and liver cancer, encompassing both primary and
metastatic forms. Her extensive research programs, generously
supported by NIH grants, have propelled our understanding of
these conditions, paving the way for potential breakthroughs in
diagnosis, management, and treatment strategies.
A hallmark of Dr. Lu's exceptional work lies in the
translational implications of her research. By skillfully
analysing her findings, she has successfully identified
potential biomarkers that distinguish simple fatty liver from
the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. This invaluable
distinction holds profound implications for early detection and
enhanced therapeutic approaches to liver-related disorders,
significantly impacting patient outcomes.
Beyond her contributions to fatty liver research, Dr. Lu's
endeavours extend to exploring effective agents for combating
liver and colon cancer. Her studies hold the promise of
inspiring novel therapeutic approaches that could revolutionize
cancer treatment, offering hope for improved survival rates and
enhanced quality of life for patients confronting these
One of Dr. Shelly Lu's standout achievements is her role as the
Principal Investigator (PI) in an NIH-funded clinical trial
investigating the therapeutic efficacy of S-adenosylmethionine
in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. This pioneering clinical
trial marks a crucial step towards understanding the potential
benefits of S-adenosylmethionine in liver-related diseases,
hinting at the possibility of transformative treatments on the
Dr. Lu's dedication to scientific excellence and her profound
contributions to S-adenosylmethionine and Glutathione metabolism
research have earned her widespread recognition and admiration
in the scientific community. Her trailblazing work continues to
inspire and ignite advancements in our comprehension of these
crucial pathways, with the ultimate aim of enhancing human
health and fostering improved patient outcomes. Through her
tireless pursuit of knowledge, Dr. Shelly Lu's legacy
reverberates as a beacon of hope in the quest to unlock the full
potential of Glutathione and S-adenosylmethionine for the
betterment of humanity.
Glutathione Story - 6 Glutathione
Precursor as an alternative to Glutathione Supplement
Dr. Robert H. Keller (1942 – 2009)
A trailblazing scientist, physician, and educator renowned for
his groundbreaking contributions to Glutathione research.
Dr. Robert H Keller
|Dr. Keller began working on a supplement
to raise intracellular glutathione levels in 1996 and was
awarded a Composition Patent in 2001 for his scientific
breakthrough product - a Glutathione Precursor Composition
combined with N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC). He began marketing MaxGXL™
through Max International LLC in 2006 amplifying intracellular
Glutathione level increase by an astounding 276%.
A triple board-certified physician, he earned acclaim as one of
America's Top Physicians (2003-2008) in Internal Medicine,
Immunology, and Haematology. He was also recognized among the
world’s Top 2,000 Outstanding Scientists.
While Dr. Keller's physical presence departed in 2009, his
impact endures. His MaxGXL™ / Original Glutathione Formula (OGF)
stands as a testament to his enduring legacy. Acknowledged as a
luminary in Glutathione research, Dr. Keller's profound insights
have revealed the multifaceted roles of Glutathione in
maintaining human health.
His illustrious career focused on unravelling the complexities
of this tripeptide molecule. Dr. Keller's pioneering studies
underscored Glutathione's pivotal role in shielding cells from
oxidative damage, a critical defence against age-related
diseases, cardiovascular issues, and neurodegenerative
Beyond groundbreaking formulations that boost Glutathione
production, Dr. Keller's research delved into its role in
fortifying the immune system. By enhancing the body's ability to
combat pathogens, Glutathione emerged as a powerful ally,
bolstering optimal immune function. Dr.
Keller's impact extends beyond the lab. His commitment to
educating and empowering others in Glutathione research is
commendable. Through mentorship, he inspired scientists and
healthcare professionals to explore Glutathione's therapeutic
In an era dominated by oxidative stress and environmental
toxins, Dr. Keller's work gains heightened significance. By
highlighting Glutathione's role in maintaining cellular health
and countering free radicals, he has paved the way for
advancements in medical treatments and preventive healthcare
strategies. Dr. Keller's legacy continues to shape the landscape
of Glutathione research, offering a beacon of hope for those
seeking health solutions.